In the summer of , two college students in Kennewick, Washington, stumbled on a human skull while wading in the shallows along the Columbia River. They called the police. The police brought in the Benton County coroner, Floyd Johnson, who was puzzled by the skull, and he in turn contacted James Chatters, a local archaeologist. Chatters and the coroner returned to the site and, in the dying light of evening, plucked almost an entire skeleton from the mud and sand. The skull, while clearly old, did not look Native American. At first glance, Chatters thought it might belong to an early pioneer or trapper.

The Ancestry and Affiliations of Kennewick Man

The basic facts of the case can be found in Watkins – prior to approx. See the library and web-based resources sections below. Chatters noted that the bones were not from a murder victim, had the worn teeth of a pre-contact Native American, and were of a colour that suggested that they were not recent in age. The absence of scavenger tooth marks on the bones suggested that the body had been buried soon after death.

Finally Chatters also noted that the skull shape appeared to be ‘caucasoid’ and not ‘mongoloid’ like modern Native Americans.

Native American Burial Sites Dating Back 5 Years Indicate. span classnewsdtspannbsp personal ads a very Toxic Person his personal.

Ancient African terracotta portraits B. Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock. According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers see Clyde A.

Winters website , the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about B. That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America.

How Irvine saved its most historic hillside

Freshwater and estuarine shellfish began to be exploited in the southeastern United States between and b. On the lower Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, shell rings arose. Until recently, all these mounds were considered middens—the accumulations of the remains of simple meals of mobile peoples who visited the same areas for hundreds or thousands of years. More recent scholarship indicates that these mounds were deliberate constructions—some of the first sculpted landscapes created by Archaic peoples to memorialize the past, celebrate the present, and provide for the future.

In this chapter, recent research on shell sites in these four areas is discussed.

From a burial site in Cameroon, archaeologists recovered human genetic material dating as far back as years. recovered ancient DNA from the two individuals and from another pair of children buried 5, years later. Some Polynesians Carry DNA of Ancient Native Americans, New Study Finds.

An Irvine hillside where mastodons once roamed, where Native Americans once lived, and where the first European explorer of California once camped will be given to the city this year for permanent preservation. In all, more than acres of Portola Springs — among the most historically significant land in Orange County — will be turned over to the city for public use. And a new park will house artifacts taken from the hillside dating back more than 13, years.

Want to see the tusk of a mastodon? The toe of a giant ground sloth? Or tools that Native Americans used on these hills thousands of years ago? Archaeologists believe that Native Americans occupied those hills nearly continuously for more than 7, years. For that reason, tribal leaders asked landowner Irvine Company to preserve the site. The company agreed, setting aside open space, trails, a park, a Native American room and Native American garden within acres of rolling hills.

All this begs the question: Why were these foothills so inviting to so many for so long? The answer starts with a giant tooth. The tooth, which will go on display in the Native American room later this year, belonged to a mastodon that roamed the hillside back in the Ice Age, more than 12, years ago. Back then, these hills flowed with water. Their lush vegetation attracted massive herbivores like ton mastodons and 4-ton giant ground sloths that constantly browsed on shrubs and leafy tree branches.

Ancient DNA from West Africa Adds to Picture of Humans’ Rise

Who were the Ancient Beringians? Ancient Beringians were a Native American group that formed a genetically distinct population between 21, and 11, years ago, and probably persisted in Alaska until about years ago. The discovery and analyses of these infants were reported in PNAS in

Controlled blasting was used near Native American burial sites during the He added that the tribe is able to track mentions of the hill dating back hundreds of years. burial sites, bone fragments that are traced and dated a thousand under the previous administration did not indicate a political agenda.

For decades, researchers believed the Western Hemisphere was settled by humans roughly 13, years ago, a theory based largely upon the widespread distribution of Clovis artifacts dated to that time. Clovis artifacts are distinctive prehistoric stone tools so named because they were initially found near Clovis, New Mexico, in the s but have since been identified throughout North and South America.

In recent years, though, archaeological evidence has increasingly called into question the idea of “Clovis First. Significantly, this research identifies a previously unknown, early projectile point technology unrelated to Clovis, which suggests that Clovis technology spread across an already well-established, indigenous population. We haven’t found anything else like them,” said Tom Williams, Ph.

The research team identified the artifacts at the Gault Site in Central Texas, an extensive archaeological site with evidence of continuous human occupation. The presence of Clovis technology at the site is well-documented, but excavations below the deposits containing Clovis artifacts revealed well-stratified sediments containing artifacts distinctly different from Clovis. To determine the ages of these artifacts, Rodrigues, Keen-Zebert, and colleagues used a process called optically simulated luminescence OSL dating to the ages of the surrounding sedimentary material.

In OSL, researchers expose minerals that have long been buried under sediment layers to light or heat, which causes the minerals to release trapped potassium, uranium, and thorium electrons that have accumulated over time due to ambient, naturally occurring radiation. When the trapped electrons are released, they emit light which can be measured to determine the amount of time that has elapsed since the materials were last exposed to heat or sunlight. We are really pleased with the quality of the results that we have achieved.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

To support our nonprofit science journalism, please make a tax-deductible gift today. Two men found at the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site in northern Siberia in Russia date to about 32, years ago, providing the earliest direct evidence of humans in the region. Indigenous Americans, who include Alaska Natives, Canadian First Nations, and Native Americans, descend from humans who crossed an ancient land bridge connecting Siberia in Russia to Alaska tens of thousands of years ago.

But scientists are unclear when and where these early migrants moved from place to place. Two new studies shed light on this mystery and uncover the most closely related Native American ancestor outside North America.

Missing journalism, Goulding circled back to her original career last year, joining the Orange County Register as a reporter. She also enjoys her.

From prehistory to the 21st century, human sacrifice has been practiced around the world by numerous cultures. Live Science takes a look at 25 cultures that practiced, or still practice, human sacrifice. Human sacrifice was practiced in China for thousands of years. At a 4,year-old cemetery near modern-day Mogou village in northwestern China, archaeologists found hundreds of tombs, some of which held human sacrifices.

One sacrificed victim was around 13 years old. Archaeologists have also found thousands of human sacrifices at Shang Dynasty — B.

Archaic Shell Mounds in the American Southeast

Contact Us Press Room. Most Oklahomans identify with the Five Tribes, the Cheyenne, the Comanche, and other contemporary Native people of the state. Representing approximately 8 percent of Oklahoma’s population, they are frequently discussed in historic accounts of the settling of Indian Territory. However, other less-well-known Native people inhabited Oklahoma for many thousands of years prior to European arrival on the southern plains in the mids.

The Wichita and the Caddo can be traced back in prehistory at least two thousand years, and the Osage and Apachean-speaking people can perhaps be documented here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Other groups with no historic tribal connections may have lived here or passed through beginning some 30, years ago.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North​, Central and The term Amerindian (a blend of “American and Indian”) and its cognates find of two infants found at the Upward Sun River site have been dated to 11, years ago. About 5% of the Nicaraguan population are indigenous.

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Does Border Wall Construction Threaten Native American Burial Sites?

Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state USA in and initially radiocarbon-dated to — calibrated years BP 1. His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted 2.

meteoritic masses with ages estimated to be 5, to 20, years have weathered Table indicates examples of archaeological sites that have been.

The first Virginians hunted elk, moose, deer, bear, bison buffalo , wolves, perhaps even some mastodons and mammoths. Over the last 15, or so years, they developed or imported new tools, such as the atl-atl throwing stick and ultimately the bow-and-arrow, to accompany their earlier stone scrapers and points. They adapted to dramatic climate change. They learned to domesticate plants and to fire clay to make pottery.

They made canoes, floated the Virginia rivers, and even paddled across the Chesapeake Bay to the Eastern Shore. The English colonists who arrived in considered the Native Americans to be “savages” with different religious beliefs, different customs when engaged in war, and different forms of dress. Those “savages” had greater skills than the European immigrants in understanding, exploiting, and adapting to change in the environment in which they lived.

The cultural patterns of the first Virginians evolved substantially over time; technological change started long before the modern challenges of new computers and social media. At the time of European arrival, one group of tribes centered along the York River was organized into what approximated a political state, with a paramount chief named Powhatan who exercised control over multiple tributary tribes.

The structure of Powhatan’s organization was based on more than kinship ties, but it is a stretch to call Powhatan’s government an “empire” comparable to the political units in Europe that sponsored voyages of discovery. Tribes paid taxes tribute to Powhatan; he was superior in authority over people not related to him. Powhatan had to consider the opinions of religious leaders and chiefs of subordinate tribes, but those tribes were ultimately controlled by one leader.

Powhatan’s tributaries the tribes that paid tribute to him are best referred to as a “paramount chiefdom” or “paramountcy. Up the Potomac River near the Fall Line, the Piscataway tayac based in modern-day Maryland governed multiple tribes, including the Dogue living between the mouth of the Occoquan River and modern-day Mount Vernon.

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